Ring topology connects each node to exactly two other nodes, forming a single continuous pathway. Data travels from node to node, with each node along the path handling every packet of the data. The following figure shows a ring topology.
This topology is highly scalable, yet susceptible to failures and traffic congestion. It is highly scalable because of its efficient use of interswitch links and ports; an additional node requires only two ports to connect to the ring. It is susceptible to failures because it provides only one path between any two nodes. Throughput of the fabric is limited by the slowest link or node. Latency can be high because of the potentially high number of hops it takes to communicates between two given switches. This topology is useful where economy of port use is critical, but availability and throughput are less critical.